A gender schema is a cognitive structure that segregates qualities and behaviour into masculine and feminine categories and associations between the categories. Children learn the content of their particular society's gender schema. They also know that they fall into one or other of those categories based on their own sex. When they begin to think of themselves as masculine or feminine, that particular gender schema is also associated with their sense of identity.
They learn that when they are picking behaviour and ways of thinking to assimilate into their own sense of selves, they should limit themselves to the particular subset of behaviour and attitudes appropriate to their own gender. Girls are socialized to accept male domination and ignore their own needs, especially in rural areas.
In India, school systems are ambivalent about imparting sex education. Even in some schools where sexual and reproductive health education exists in the curriculum, teachers are often too embarrassed and uncomfortable to effectively instruct. Most adolescent girls in India have little knowledge of menstruation, sexuality, and reproduction.
Large numbers of rural and urban populations believe that menstruation contaminates the body and makes it unholy. In certain cultures, girls are isolated in a separate room for 3 days and are untouchable during this period.
As a consequence, the girl often sees herself as impure, unclean, and dirty. Even before menarche, the onset of puberty by itself decreases autonomy and mobility, with increasing restrictions on clothes, appearance, conduct, speech, and interaction with the opposite sex. After marriage, husband and in-laws control her life. In certain communities, girls are taught to walk with a downward gaze.
The Indian “girl” psychology: A perspective
In India, early marriage of girls has received religious and social sanctions. Despite the laws increasing the legal age of marriage to 18 for girls, there are strong cultural pressures on parents to marry daughters early. The median age at first marriage among women, 20—49, in India is In urban areas of India, only half of girls between 15 and 17 years of age attend school. This further exposes them to a higher risk of domestic violence and abuse, increased economic dependence, denial of decision-making power, inequality at home, which further perpetuates discrimination, and low status of girls.
Early marriage usually translates into repeated pregnancies at a tender age when the body is not fully prepared for childbearing. Girls age 15—19 are more likely In India, violence within the home is universal across culture, religion, class, and ethnicity.
- Female Foeticide In India.
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Girls face violence at the hands of their husbands, fathers, brothers, and uncles in their homes. It may also include rape and sexual abuse. Psychological violence includes verbal abuse, harassment, confinement, and deprivation of physical, financial, and personal resources. They are often caught in a vicious circle of economic dependence, fear for their children's lives as well as their own, ignorance of their legal rights, lack of confidence in themselves, and social pressures.
These factors effectively force women to a life of recurrent mistreatment from which they often do not have the means to escape. The sanctity of privacy within the family also makes authorities reluctant to intervene, often leading women to deny that they are being abused.
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This is equally common in the higher as well as in the lower segments of the society. Domestic violence has devastating repercussions on the family. Mothers are unable to care for their children properly. Often they transmit to them their own feelings of low self-esteem, helplessness, and inadequacy. Trafficking in its broad sense includes the exploitation of girls by pushing them into prostitution, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, and trade in human organs.
In case of children who have been trafficked or have become victims of child marriages, it violates their right to education, employment, and self-determination. In the existing social scenario in India, vulnerability is a product of inequality, low status, and discrimination, and of the patriarchal authority unleashed on children, especially the girl child. This is further compounded by the apathetic attitude of society, fuelled by a mindset which views women as mere assets with no freedom of choices and options to lead a life with dignity.
They are taking greater care in bringing up daughters. Another way by which girls are forced into prostitution is in the name of custom.
Essay on Female Foeticide for Children and Students
Abuse and violence against girls in the society may contribute to the development of dysfunctional behaviour, depression, anxiety, eating disorders, somatization disorders, etc. It is also documented that girls tend to somatize and dissociate more owing to their status in authoritarian patriarchal society.
Teen girls used to be less likely to be abusers of alcohol and drugs than boys, but they are catching up. The major causes for drug addiction among girls are peer pressure, stress, family disputes, failure in life, examination stress, unhealthy novelty seeking, love affairs, and psychiatric disorders. This is especially because youth is a time for experimentation and identity formation. Unfortunately, the majority are out of school and have limited choices available for the future.
They are caught in the cycle of early marriage, repeated pregnancy, and poverty. Industrialization, liberalization, and urbanization, and female foeticide have brought about some obvious changes in stereotyped concepts of masculinity and femininity, affecting household composition, residence patterns, specific kinship relationships, and male and female attitudes and behavior.
Family and society together can lead girls toward the positive psychology of increasing optimism, strong social connections, and healthy self-confidence. Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None declared. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Indian J Psychiatry v. Indian J Psychiatry. Prasad Rao , K. Vidya , and V. Prasad Rao. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Essay on “Female Foeticide” in India ( Words)
Asha Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract India has one of the fastest growing youth populations in the world. Keywords: Discrimination, gender, girl, psychology. Female Infanticide in Tamilnadu: Some Evidence.
Economic and Political Weekly. Chowdhury A, Patnaik MM. Understanding the Indian family tree; the gender perspective. Female foeticide refers to the illegal abortion of female foetus.
Despite strictly banned by law, female foeticide in India is still in practice. The crime stems from the want of not having a girl child, by the society which considers girls as an additional liability on her parents. It also has far reaching consequences on the society, like a higher male to female sex ratio. Lesser number of females than males in any particular region leads to illegal trafficking of females from other locations to that region, technically called flesh trade. Female foeticide is very important topic which students may be assigned to write complete essay or only paragraph during their exam or essay writing competition.
Students can select any of the essays on Female Foeticide according to their need and requirement. Female foeticide is in practice in India from the time of advent of technological advancements in medical field like prenatal sex determination in the s. However, earlier to this, female childs were killing after their birth in many regions of the country.