They do not take patient assignments. The resource nurse is seen as both a caregiver and a resource to other caregivers. Staff nurses have a hierarchy of seniority. Staff nurses are assigned to patients to provide all their nursing care.
Using Quotations | Writing Advice
Chase, , p. Critical care nurses have a hierarchy of roles. The nurse manager hires and fires nurses. On each shift a resource nurse attends to the functioning of the unit as a whole, such as making sure beds are available in the operating room , and also has a patient assignment.
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The nurse clinician orients new staff, develops policies, and provides support where needed. The clinical nurse specialist also orients new staff, mostly by formal teaching. The nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist , as the designated experts, do not take patient assignments.
The resource nurse is not only a caregiver but a resource to the other caregivers. Within the staff nurses there is also a hierarchy of seniority. Their job is to give assigned patients all their nursing care. The phrases in red are directly copied from the source or changed only slightly in form. Even if the student-writer had acknowledged Chase as the source of the content, the language of the passage would be considered plagiarized because no quotation marks indicate the phrases that come directly from Chase.
And if quotation marks did appear around all these phrases, this paragraph would be so cluttered that it would be unreadable. Chase describes how nurses in a critical care unit function in a hierarchy that places designated experts at the top and the least senior staff nurses at the bottom. The experts — the nurse manager, nurse clinician, and clinical nurse specialist — are not involved directly in patient care.
The staff nurses, in contrast, are assigned to patients and provide all their nursing care. Within the staff nurses is a hierarchy of seniority in which the most senior can become resource nurses: they are assigned a patient but also serve as a resource to other caregivers. The experts have administrative and teaching tasks such as selecting and orienting new staff, developing unit policies , and giving hands-on support where needed.
In her study of the roles of nurses in a critical care unit, Chase also found a hierarchy that distinguished the roles of experts and others. Just as the educational experts described above do not directly teach students, the experts in this unit do not directly attend to patients. The roles of the experts include employing unit nurses and overseeing the care of special patients nurse manager , teaching and otherwise integrating new personnel into the unit clinical nurse specialist and nurse clinician , and policy-making nurse clinician.
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In an intermediate position in the hierarchy is the resource nurse, a staff nurse with more experience than the others, who assumes direct care of patients as the other staff nurses do, but also takes on tasks to ensure the smooth operation of the entire facility. Chase, S. The social context of critical care clinical judgment. Heart and Lung, 24, One of your jobs as a writer is to guide your reader through your text. Often both the signal and the assertion appear in a single introductory statement, as in the example below.
Notice how a transitional phrase also serves to connect the quotation smoothly to the introductory statement. Ross , in her study of poor and working-class mothers in London from [signal], makes it clear that economic status to a large extent determined the meaning of motherhood [assertion]. Illness was rarely a routine matter in the nineteenth century [assertion]. Incorporate short direct prose quotations into the text of your paper and enclose them in double quotation marks:.
Begin longer quotations for instance, in the APA system, 40 words or more on a new line and indent the entire quotation i. Unsucessful Paraphrases page. More than 3 lines of poetry should be indented. As with any extended indented quotation, do not use quotation marks unless you need to indicate a quotation within your quotation.
Introducing a quote
With short quotations, place citations outside of closing quotation marks, followed by sentence punctuation period, question mark, comma, semi-colon, colon :. Menand acknowledges that H. Place outside of closing quotation marks if the entire sentence containing the quotation is a question or exclamation:. According to Hertzberg , Dahl gives the U. Use ellipsis points. Within quotations, use square brackets [ ] not parentheses to add your own clarification, comment, or correction.
Familiarize yourself with the various verbs commonly used to introduce quotations. Here is a partial list:. Each verb has its own nuance. Make sure that the nuance matches your specific aims in introducing the quotation. Vary the way you introduce quotations to avoid sounding monotonous. But never sacrifice precision of phrasing for the sake of variety. If your quotation is lengthy, you should almost always introduce it with a full sentence that helps capture how it fits into your argument. If your quotation is longer than four lines, do not place it in quotation marks.
Instead, set it off as a block quotation :. Hence his lack of any constructive suggestion anywhere in his work. He attacks the law, parliamentary government, the educational system and so forth, without ever clearly suggesting what he would put in their places.
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For in reality his target is not so much society as human nature. The full-sentence introduction to a block quotation helps demonstrate your grasp of the source material, and it adds analytical depth to your essay. But the introduction alone is not enough. Long quotations almost invariably need to be followed by extended analysis. Never allow the quotation to do your work for you. Usually you will want to keep the quotation and your analysis together in the same paragraph.
Hence it is a good idea to avoid ending a paragraph with a quotation. But if your analysis is lengthy, you may want to break it into several paragraphs, beginning afresh after the quotation. Once in a while you can reverse the pattern of quotation followed by analysis. A felicitously worded or an authoritative quotation can, on occasion, nicely clinch an argument. There is some flexibility in the rule that block quotations are for passages of four lines or more: a shorter passage can be represented as a block quotation if it is important enough to stand on its own.
For example, when you are quoting two or more lines of poetry , you will probably want to display the verse as it appears on the page:.
Why is it important to identify my sources?
What dire offense from amorous causes springs, What mighty contests rise from trivial things. If you choose to integrate verse into your own sentence, then use a slash surrounded by spaces to indicate line breaks:. The academic research process.