If you only have a few terms that need explaining, you can choose to add the explanations in a footnote. If you have a lot of abbreviations, put these in the list of abbreviations. Do you only have a few abbreviations in your dissertation? Then you can explain the abbreviations in the text. In addition to the use of a glossary, you could also use a list of figures and tables and a list of abbreviations.
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Home Knowledge Base Dissertation Glossary of a dissertation. You also need to clearly define the acronyms.
Glossary of Essay Terms
When developing your dissertation, you can easily get deeply immersed in your topics and the details including common acronyms around that topic. This can make you to easily forget that your readership audience may not understand the meaning of the acronym particularly in that context of the study. This is why it is important for the student to include the parenthetical definition of an acronym in the first chapter where it appears. When you follow these guidelines, it will be easy for you to provide definition of key terms in a way that is easy for your reads to understand.
The goal of the trial is to compare a treatment to a placebo. Clinical trial, phases : sequential stages of clinical testing, required by regulatory agencies, used in the development of medical treatments. Pre-clinical testing involves experiments on animals or cells to estimate safety and potential efficacy.
Phase I trials are small studies subjects conducted in human beings for the first time to assess safety, pharmacology, or dosing. Phase I studies are usually conducted on healthy volunteers though some are conducted on patients with terminal diseases, such as cancer patients. Phase II trials are larger studies or more subjects conducted on patients with a disease to assess safety and efficacy and establish a therapeutic dose. Phase III trials are large studies up to several thousand subjects conducted on patients to obtain more information on safety and efficacy.
Phase IV or post-marketing studies are conducted after a treatment has been approved for marketing to gather more information on safety and efficacy and to expand the range of the population being treated. Clinical trial, registration : providing information about a clinical trial in a public registry. Most journals and funding agencies require that clinical trials be registered.
Clinical utility : the clinical usefulness of information, e. Coercion : using force, threats, or intimidation to make a person comply with a demand. Collaboration agreement : an agreement between two or more collaborating research groups concerning the conduct of research. The agreement may address the roles and responsibilities of the scientists, access to data, authorship, and intellectual property. Commercialization : the process of developing and marketing commercial products e. See also Copyrights , Intellectual Property , Patents.
How to create a glossary in Microsoft Word
Common law : a body of law based on judicial decisions and rulings. Common Rule : The U. Department of Health and Human Services regulations 45 CFR 46 for protecting human subjects, which has been adopted by 17 federal agencies. The Common Rule includes subparts with additional protections for children, neonates, pregnant women and fetuses, and prisoners. Community review : a process for involving a community in the review of research conducted on members of the community.
Some research studies include community advisory boards as a way of involving the community. Adults are considered to be legally competent until they are adjudicated incompetent by a court. Compliance : in research, complying with laws, institutional policies and ethical guidelines related to research. Conduct : Action or behavior. For example, conducting research involves performing actions related to research, such as designing experiments, collecting data, analyzing data, and so on.
Confidentiality : the obligation to keep some types of information confidential or secret.
In science, confidential information typically includes: private data pertaining to human subjects, papers or research proposals submitted for peer review, personnel records, proceedings from misconduct inquiries or investigations, and proprietary data. See also Privacy. Conflict of interest COI : a situation in which a person has a financial, personal, political or other interest which is likely to bias his or her judgment or decision-making concerning the performance of his or her ethical or legal obligations or duties.
Conflict of interest, apparent or perceived : a situation in which a person has a financial, personal, political or other interest that is not likely to bias his or her judgment or decision-making concerning the performance of his or her ethical or legal obligation or duties but which may appear to an outside observer to bias his or her judgement or decision-making.
Conflict of interest, institutional : a situation in which an institution such as a university has financial, political, or other interests which are likely to bias institutional decision-making concerning the performance of institutional ethical or legal duties. Consent : See Informed consent. Consequentialism : an approach to ethics , such as utilitarianism , which emphasizes maximizing good over bad consequences resulting from actions or policies. Continuing review : in human subjects research , subsequent review of a study after it has been approved by an IRB. Continuing review usually happens on an annual basis.
Copyright : a right , granted by a government, which prohibits unauthorized copying, performance, or alteration of creative works. Copyright laws include a fair use exemption which allows limited, unauthorized uses for non-commercial purposes. Correction or errata : fixing a minor problem with a published paper. A minor problem is one that does not impact the reliability or integrity of the data or results.
Journals publish correction notices and identify corrected papers in electronic databases to alert the scientific community to problems with the paper.
Glossary of a dissertation
See also Retraction. Culture of integrity : the idea that the institutional culture plays a key role in preventing research misconduct and promoting research integrity. Strategies to promote a culture of integrity include education and mentoring in the responsible conduct of research ; research policy development; institutional support for research ethics oversight, consultation, and curriculum development; and ethical leadership. Data : recorded information used to test scientific hypotheses or theories.
Data may include laboratory notebooks paper or digital , field notes, transcribed interviews, spreadsheets, digital images, x-ray photographs, audio or video recordings, and outputs from machines such as gas chromatographs or DNA sequencers. Original or primary data is drawn directly from the data source; secondary or derived data is based on the primary data. Data and safety monitoring board DSMB : a committee that monitors data from human subjects research to protect participants from harm and promote their welfare.
DSMBs may recommend to an institutional review board that a study be stopped or altered. Data imputation : use of statistical methods to fill in or replace missing or lost data. Imputation is not considered to be fabrication if it is done honestly and appropriately. Data management : Practices and policies related to recording, storing, auditing, archiving, analyzing, interpreting, sharing, and publishing data.
Data outlier : a data point that is more than two standards deviations from the mean. Removal of outliers without articulating a legitimate reason may constitute data , falsification. Data use agreement DUA : an agreement between institutions for the sharing and use of research data. Deception : in human subjects research , using methods to deceive subjects about the goals and nature of a study or the methods, tests, interventions, or procedures used in the study.
See also Placebo , Observer effect. Decision-making capacity DMC : the ability to make sound decisions. DMC is often situational and comes in degrees: for example, a person may be able to order food from a menu but not be able to make a decision concerning complex medical treatment. Factors that can compromise DMC include mental illness or disability, extreme emotional stress, drugs, age, or serious physical illness.
De-identified data or samples : data or biological samples which have been stripped of information, such as name or medical record number, which personally identifies individuals. Deontology : an approach to ethics, such as Kantianism , which emphasizes adherence to rules or principles of conduct.
Discrimination : treating people differently based on irrelevant characteristics, such as skin color, ethnicity, or gender. Double-blinding : processes used to prevent human research subjects and researchers from discovering who is receiving an experimental treatment vs.
Double-blinding is used to control for the placebo effect. Dual use research : research that can be readily used for beneficial or harmful purposes. Duplicate publication : republishing the same paper or data without proper acknowledgment. Emergency research : in human subjects research , research that is conducted when a subject who cannot provide informed consent faces a life-threatening illness that requires immediate treatment and has no available legally authorized representative to provide consent. The Food and Drug Administration has developed special rules for emergency research involving products that it regulates.
Ethical dilemma : A situation in which two or more potential actions appear to be equally justifiable from an ethical point of view, i. Ethical reasoning : Making a decision in response to a moral dilemma based a careful and thorough assessment of the different options in light of the facts and circumstances and ethical considerations. Ethical relativism : The view that ethical standards are relative to a particular culture, society, historical period, etc.
When in Rome, do as the Romans do. See Ethical universalism. Ethical theory : A set of statements that attempts to unify, systematize, and explain our moral experience, i. See Kantianism , Utilitarianism , Virtue ethics. Ethical universalism : The view that the same standards of ethics apply to all people at all times. Ethics or morals : 1. The study of standards of conduct. Ethics, applied : The study of ethics in specific situations, professions, or institutions, e.
Ethics, meta- : The study of the meaning, truth, and justification of ethical statements.
Ethics, normative vs. Descriptive ethics studies the standards of conduct and reasoning processes that people in fact follow. Normative ethics seeks to prescribe and evaluate conduct, whereas descriptive ethics seeks to describe and explain conduct. Disciplines such as philosophy and religious studies take a normative approach to ethics, whereas sociology, anthropology, psychology, neuroscience, and evolutionary biology take a descriptive approach.